By Cornel Stan
The publication offers – according to the latest study and improvement effects all over the world - the views of recent propulsion ideas similar to electrical vehicles with batteries and gasoline cells, and moreover plug in hybrids with traditional and substitute fuels. The propulsion techniques are evaluated according to particular energy, torque attribute, acceleration behaviour, particular gasoline intake and pollutant emissions. the choice fuels are mentioned when it comes to availability, construction, technical complexity of the garage on board, expenditures, protection and infrastructure.
The publication offers summarized information approximately autos with electrical and hybrid propulsion.
The propulsion of destiny automobiles might be marked via variety – from compact electrical urban automobiles and diversity extender cars for suburban and rural components as much as hybrid or plug in SUV´s, choose up´s and comfort classification autos.
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Additional info for Alternative Propulsion for Automobiles
The values for gasoline are generally similar; the higher consumption is compensated for by mass with the lower density. 78 kg/l at the same pressure and temperature. 5 kg/l. However, tank mass also increases because of the higher fuel pressure, which requires stronger walls: for 37 kg of fuel, the tank mass becomes 72 kg. Fig. 17 Comparison of the stored mass and volume for different fuel types and on-board batteries for the same energetic content 22 1 Mobility: Conditions, Requirements, and Scenarios Therefore, both the mass and the volume of the full tank for LPG are twice that required for diesel fuel to obtain the same energy content.
Such machines were tested about 25 years ago as direct propulsion systems for automobiles. The Firebird gas turbines of General Motors were made in two variants, 147 kW and 271 kW. However, much more interesting is the use of gas turbines as on-board current generators for automobiles, providing energy for electric propulsion. Such a hybrid configuration has been successfully tested in prototypes. The Joule cycle consists of two isobaric sequences (heat input + expansion, heat release + compression) and two isentropic sequences (compression, expansion).
21 shows an example of typical torque curves for an engine (in this case, a gasoline engine) and a motor for car propulsion. The power can be calculated from the torque as follows: Pe ¼ M d Á ω Pe ¼ Md Á 2πn with ω ¼ 2πn ð2:9aÞ Corresponding to these equations, the power curve can be represented as shown in Fig. 21. Another form of power display is as hyperbolas with constant power value in the (Md, n) diagram, as illustrated in Fig. 21. The most significant difference between propulsion by engine and motor is in torque characteristics: • The maximum torque of an engine deploys with increasing engine speed.
Alternative Propulsion for Automobiles by Cornel Stan