By Milton Van Dyke
Over four hundred attractive black-and-white pictures, accrued from world wide, illustrate the good range of fluid movement. Flows starting from creeping to hypersonic speeds, in either the laboratory and Nature, are saw without delay, or made noticeable utilizing smoke, ink, bubbles, debris, shadographs, schlieren, interferometry, and different innovations. Succinct captions describe the basic beneficial properties of every circulation.
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Additional resources for Album of Fluid Motion
The challenging set of problems was shown by Sirignano to be the cases in which this ratio N is not small compared with unity. These higher values of N tend to occur in high-temperature environments. The value of N is not dependent on the initial droplet size. The liquid-heating time τ H , defined as the time required for a thermal diffusion wave to penetrate from the droplet surface to its center, is of the order of R02 /αl = ρl cl R02 /λl . From Eq. 9) with a constant value of ρ D and from a relationship between the initial liquid-droplet mass and its initial radius, the droplet lifetime τ L = O [(1/R0 )2 dR2 /dt]−1 can be estimated as ρl R02 /[2ρ D log(1 + B)].
In the case of a vaporizing droplet without a flame in the vicinity of the droplet, Eqs. 15b) still apply. However, the transfer number is B= h∞ − hs YF s − YF ∞ = . 15c) In this situation, there is no peak temperature in the surrounding gas film because of a diffusion flame. However, the ambient temperature could be driven by combustion in the far field, which occurs in the mixture of fuel vapor and oxidizer there. Fachini et al. (1999) considered a thin spherical flame surrounding the fuel droplet with a low stoichiometric fuel–air ratio, thereby maintaining the flame sheet far from the droplet.
More recently, Card and Williams (1992a, 1992b) and Zhang et al. (1996) used rate-ratio asymptotic methods with reduced but multistep chemical-kinetic schemes to predict extinction for methanol and n-heptane fuel droplets. However, sensitivity was demonstrated to the particular assumptions that are made in the model. Bracco (1973) performed a numerical integration of a system of equations equivalent to Eqs. 6). Steady-state conditions for the gas and a uniform steady liquid temperature were considered so that the equations were reduced to ordinary differential equations.
Album of Fluid Motion by Milton Van Dyke