By J. W. de Jong
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Ha, Oldenberg entirely rejected Senart's ideas 36 (ErH>rts, nI, 1917, pp. 1 3 1-139. 37 uri roi de Plnde au nrc sieclc avant notre ere. , rer mars 1889 (tome 92), pp. 67-I08. 38 CEtl'Prer, IT, 1914, pp. 55-57. 39 Bouddhisme, Etudes tt mat/rioux, London, r898, pp. 31-33. Rtpue tits 35 and remarked that the true nature of Buddhism was realised not by the lay followers, but by the monks whose goal was Nirva(la. Oldenberg also protested against Senart's reduction of Buddhism to a branch of Hinduism and pointed out that fundamental Buddhist concepts �uch as the dualism between the suf ferings of human existence and deliverance, the doctrine of karman and also the ascetic way oflife were inherited from Vedism (Buddha, 2.
At that time. He relied upon such texts as the Nidailakatha and the Bud dhavamsa and its commentary. Senart studied in detail the conception of the cakravartin and his seven nitna and that of the Mahapuru�a and his marks. In this way the Buddha was considered by him as the solar hero, the Maba puru�a, the Cakravartin. Before his birth he is the supreme god. He descends from heaven as a luminous god. His mother, Maya, represents the sovereign creative power and is at the same time the goddess of the atmospheric mist.
I43-I45). on Buddhism While texts were edited and translated and the problems connected with their interpretation were studied by scholars in Europe, in India inscriptions were discovered and edited and Buddhist monuments described and inter preted. Among the inscriptions, those ofAsoka are the most important for the historian. It is not necessaiy to relate the first attempts at deciphering by James Prinsep (I799-I840) in I834 and the following years. Burnouf is the first scholar of Buddhism to have studied the Asokan inscriptions.
A Brief History of Buddhist Studies in Europe and America by J. W. de Jong